Automated Workflow Environments and EMR

October 30, 2006

Well, we work in the next era of software development, not only designing applications, but also developing systems that communicate with each other, thus participating in a workflow.

Automating this workflow through the seamless integration of these apps is a task that challenges many of the industries that we work in.

Automated Workflow Environments are those systems where multiple systems contribute and communicate to enable a network of these apps to actually solve complex problems very efficiently, with no human interaction. You can call them Digital Ecosystems.

You can construct workflow nets to describe the complex problems that these systems efficiently solve. Workflow nets, a subclass of Petri nets, are known as attractive models for analyzing complex business processes. Because of their good theoretical foundation, Petri nets have been used successfully to model and analyze processes from many domains, like for example, software and business processes. A Petri net is a directed graph with two kinds of nodes – places and transitions – where arcs connect ‘a place’ to ‘a transition’ or a transition to a place. Each place can contain zero, one or more tokens. The state of a Petri net is determined by the distribution of tokens over places. A transition can fire if each of its inputs contains tokens. If the transition fires, i.e. it executes, it takes one token from each input place and puts it on each output place.

In a hospital environment, for example, the processes involved, show a complex and dynamic behavior, which is difficult to control. The workflow net which models such a complex process provides a good insight into it, and due to its formal representation, offers techniques for improved control.

Workflows are case oriented, which means that each activity executed in the workflow corresponds to a case. In a hospital domain, a case corresponds with a patient and an activity corresponds with a medical activity. The process definition of a workflow assumes that a partial order or sequence exists between activities, which establish which activities have to be executed in what order. Referring to the Petri net formalism, workflow activities are modeled as transitions and the causal dependencies between activities are modeled as places and arcs. The routing in a workflow assumes four kind of routing constructs: sequential, parallel, conditional and iterative routing. These constructs basically define the route taken by ‘tokens’ in this workflow.

Well, enough theory, how does this apply?

Think of this in practical terms using the example of a EMR* or CPR* System or HIS* System:
• A patient arrives at a hospital for a consultation or particular set of exams or procedures.
• The patient is registered, if new to the hospital. A visit or encounter record is created in the Patient Chart (EMR) – with vitals, allergies, current meds and insurance details.
• The physician examines the patient and orders labs, diagnostic exams or prescription medications for the patient possibly using a handheld CPOE*
• The patient is scheduled for the exams in the RIS – radiology info system or LIS – laboratory info system or HIS (hospital info system)
• The RIS or LIS or HIS sends notifications to the Radiology and/or Cardiology and/or Lab or other Departments in the hospital through HL7 messages for the various workflows.
• The various systems in these departments will then send HL7 or DICOM or proprietary messages to get the devices or modalities, updated with the patient data (prior history, etc.)
• The patient is then taken around by the nurses to the required modalities in the exam/LAB areas to perform the required activities.
• The patient finishes the hospital activities while the diagnosis continues and the entire data gathered is coalesced and stored in rich structured report or multimedia formats in the various repositories – resulting in a summary patient encounter/visit record in the Electronic Patient Record in the EMR database.
• There could also be other workflows triggered – pharmacy, billing,.
• The above is just the scenario for an OUTPATIENT, there are other workflows for INPATIENT – ED/ICU/other patients.

The key problems in this ‘Automated Workflow Environment’ are:

• Accurate Patient Identification and Portability to ensure that the Patient Identity is unique across multiple systems/departments and maybe hospitals. The Patient Identity key is also essential to Integrating Patient healthcare across clinics, hospitals, regions(RHIO) and states.
• Support for Barcode/RFID on Patient Wrist Bands, Prescriptions/Medications, Billing (using MRN, Account Number, Order Number,Visit Number), etc to enable automation and quick and secure processing.
• Quick Patient data retrieval and support for parallel transactions
Audits and Logs for tracking access to this system
• Support for PACS, Emergency care, Chronic care (ICU / PACU), Long Term care, Periodic visits, point of care charting, meds administration, vital signs data acquisition, alarm notification, surveillance for patient monitors, smart IV pumps, ventilators and other care areas – treatment by specialists in off-site clinics, etc.
• Support for Care Plans, Order sets and Templates, results’ tracking and related transactions.
• Quick vital sign results and diagnostic reporting
• Effective display of specialty content – diagnostic/research images, structured “rich” multimedia reports.
Secure and efficient access to this data from the internet
Removal of paper documentation and effective transcription
SSO-Single Sign On, Security roles and Ease of use for the various stakeholders – here, the patient, the RN, physician, specialist, IT support etc.
Seamless integration with current workflows and support for updates to hospital procedures
Modular deployment of new systems and processes – long term roadmap and strategies to prevent costly upgrades or vendor changes.
HIPAA, JCAHO and Legal compliance – which has an entire set of guidelines – privacy, security being the chief one.
• Efficient standardized communication between the different systems either via “standard” HL7 or DICOM or CCOW or proprietary.
• Support for a High speed Fiber network system for high resolution image processing systems like MRI, X-Ray, CT-SCAN, etc.
• A high speed independent network for real time patient monitoring systems and devices
• Guaranteed timely Data storage and recovery with at least 99.9999% visible uptime
• Original Patient data available for at least 7 years and compliance with FDA rules.
Disaster recovery compliance and responsive Performance under peak conditions.
• Optimized data storage ensuring low hardware costs
Plug ‘n’ Play of new systems and medical devices into the network, wireless communication among vital signs devices and servers, etc.
Location tracking of patients and devices (RFID based) and Bed Tracking in the hospital
Centralized viewing of the entire set of Patient data – either by a patient or his/her physician
Multi-lingual user interface possibilities (in future?)
Correction of erroneous data and merging of Patient records.
Restructuring existing hospital workflows and processes so that this entire automated workflow environment works with a definite ROI and within a definite time period!
• Integration with billing, insurance and other financial systems related to the care charges.
Future proof and support for new technologies like Clinical Decision Support (CDSS) – again a long term roadmap is essential.

ROI: How does a hospital get returns on this IT investment?

  1. Minimization of errors – medication or surgical – and the associated risks
  2. Electronic trail of patient case history available to patient, insurance and physicians
  3. Reduced documentation and improvement in overall efficiency and throughput
  4. Patient Referrals from satellite clinics who can use the EMR’s external web links to document on patients – thus providing a continuous electronic report
  5. Possible pay-per-use by external clinics – to use EMR charting facilities
  6. Remote specialist consultation
  7. Efficient Charges, Billing and quicker settlements
  8. Better Clinical Decision Support – due to an electronic database of past treatments
  9. In the long term, efficiency means cheaper insurance which translates to volume income
  10. Better compliance of standards – HIPAA, privacy requirements, security
  11. Reduced workload due to Process Improvement across departments – ED, Obstetrics/Gynecology, Oncology/Radiology, Orthopedic, Cardiovascular, Pediatrics, Internal Medicine, Urology, General Surgery, Ophthalmology, General/family practice, Dermatology, Psychiatry
  12. Improved Healthcare with Proactive Patient Care due to CDSS
  13. Quality of Patient Care: A silent factor of a hospital’s revenue is quality of patient care. One of the chief drivers of quality of patient care is the quality of information provided efficiently to the Physicians though which they can make those critical decisions

Now, the big picture becomes clear.

Doesn’t the above set of requirements apply to any domain? This analysis need not be applicable only to a hospital domain, the same is true for a Biotech domain (where orders are received, data is processed, analyzed, and the processed data is presented or packaged). Similarly a Manufacturing Domain, Banking domain or Insurance Domain etc.

The need is for core engine software – based on EDI (Electronic Data Interchange) – that integrate and help in the Process Re-Engineering of these mini workflows securely and effectively and using common intersystem communication formats like X-12 or HL7 messages.

These Workflow Engines would be the hearts of the digital world!

Buzzwords:
*EMR – Electronic Medical Record
*CPR – Computerized Patient Record
*CDSS – Clinical Decision Support
*RHIO – Regional Health Information Organization
*CPOE – computerized physician order entry

Some of the information presented here is thanks to research papers and articles at:
*Common Framework for health information networks
*Discovery of Workflow Models for Hospital Data
*Healthcare workflow
*CCOW-IHE Integration Profiles
*Hospital Network Management Best Practices
*12 Consumer Values for your wall

What about the latest IT trends and their applications in healthcare?

We already know about Google Earth and Google Hybrid Maps and the advantages of Web 2.0
The next best thing is to search the best shopping deal or the best real estate by area and on a hybrid map – this recombinant web application reuse technique is called a mashup or heat map.
Mashups have applications in possibly everything from Healthcare to Manufacturing.
Omnimedix is developing and deploying a nationwide data mashup – Dossia, a secure, private, independent network for capturing medical information, providing universal access to this data along with an authentication system for delivery to patients and consumers.

Click on the below links to see the current ‘best in class mash ups
*After hours Emergency Doctors SMS After hours Emergency Doctors SMS system – Transcribes voicemail into text and sends SMS to doctors. A similar application can be used for Transcription Mashup (based on Interactive Voice Response – IVR): Amazon Mturk, StrikeIron Global SMS and Voice XML
* Calendar with Messages Listen to your calendar + leave messages too Mashup (based on IVR): 30 Boxes based on Voxeo , Google Calendar
* http://www.neighboroo.com/ – Housing/Climate/Jobs/Schools
* Visual Classifieds Browser – Search Apartments, visually
* http://www.trulia.com/ – Real Estate/Home pricing
* http://www.rentometer.com/ – Rent comparison
* http://realestatefu.mashfu.com/ – Real Estate Statistical Analysis
* http://www.housingmaps.com/ – Rent/Real Estate/Home pricing – linked to Craigslist
* http://virtualtourism.blogspot.com/ – Google Maps + Travel Videos
* http://www.coverpop.com/wheeloflunch/ – Wheel of Zip Code based restaurants
* More sample links at this site (unofficial Google mashup tracker) http://googlemapsmania.blogspot.com/ includes some mentionable sites :
* latest news from India by map http://www.mibazaar.com/news/
* read news by the map – slightly slow http://lab.news.com.au/maps/v01
* view news from Internet TV by map – http://5tvs.com/internet-tv-maps/news/
* see a place in 360 http://www.seevirtual360.com/Map.aspx

What’s on the wish list ? Well, a worldwide mashup for real estate, shopping, education, healthcare will do just fine. Read on to try out YOUR sample…
OpenKapow: The online mashup builder community that lets you easily make mashups. Use their visual scripting environment to create intelligent software Robots that can make mashups from any site with or without an API.
In the words of Dion HinchCliffe, “Mashups are still new and simple, just like PCs were 20 years ago. The tools are barely there, but the potential is truly vast as hundreds of APIs are added to the public Web to build out of”.
Don also covers the architecture and types of Mashups here with an update on recombinant web apps

Keep up to date on web2.0 at http://blog.programmableweb.com/

Will Silverlight and simplified vector based graphics and workflow based – xml language – XAML be the replacement for Flash and JavaFX?

Well, the technology is promising and many multimedia content web application providers including News channels have signed up for Microsoft SilverLight “WPF/E” due to the light weight browser based viewer streaming “DVD” quality video based on the patented VC-1 video codec.

Microsoft® Silverlight™ Streaming by Windows Live™ is a companion service for Silverlight that makes it easier for developers and designers to deliver and scale rich interactive media apps (RIAs) as part of their Silverlight applications. The service offers web designers and developers a free and convenient solution for hosting and streaming cross-platform, cross-browser media experiences and rich interactive applications that run on Windows™ XP+ and Mac OS 10.4+.

The only problem is LINUX is left out from this since the Mono Framework has not yet evolved sufficiently.

So, the new way to develop your AJAX RIA “multimedia web application” is – design the UI with an Artist in Adobe Illustrator and mashup with your old RSS, LINQ, JSON, XML-based Web services, REST and WCF Services to deliver a richer scalable web application.


Is it Knoppix or PCLinuxOS time?

September 19, 2006

Not yet tired of windows? Well, read on to find out the next gen O/S out there…

* New capabilities – creating a remastered custom Live CD/DVD and booting from a USB flash

Let’s see where do I start…

Well, my machine crashed – it’s a new Acer – http://global.acer.com/4152 NLCI (4150 or 4650 series) laptop- and the problem was maybe some virus, because the ntoskrnl.exe was corrupted, and the drivers just stopped loading after a few seconds of boot time, bringing the hard disc to a halt and the screen to a frozen white screen (talk about the old blue screen being upgraded by MS!!!)

Time to look around for a boot-able and repair kit right! I tried – got an XP cd and installed XP onto a different partition – but the next day – that too went into the same loop like the above.

Then, I found out that maybe the hard disc may have got some permanent damage – thanks to all the travel lately.

I look around for a solution other than DOS obviously and I find the best free O/S ever!

Knoppix — the free open source Linux O/S that boots and runs from a CD/DVD (like PCLinuxOS 2007), with automatic hardware detection, recognizing all the devices – Graphics Card, Sound Card, USB, CD, DVD, RAID, Modem, Lan Card, printer-scanner(hp all-in-one), pcmcia cards, sd card(gateway works with PCLinuxOS), bluetooth(works with PCLinuxOS), wireless(works with PCLinuxOS),modem, external camera, webcam – you name it and its a solid system that detects, installs and boots fast (PCLinuxOS 2007 boots in 30 seconds), and runs quickly on ordinary hardware! It can even mount my NTFS hard disc in read mode (ntfs-3g driver supports read and write of NTFS files) to copy files to my USB so my critical files are saved in no time. Of course, part of the recovery process is being able to write CD and DVD’s which Knoppix (and PCLinuxOS) supports with a right click menu.

Knoppix – a flavor of Debian Linux – http://www.knopper.net/knoppix/index-en.html or http://www.knoppix.net/ – is a 640MB bootable Live CD with a collection of GNU/Linux s/w, which brings up a Windows like user interface, connects to the internet (after a minor config) through a DSL or Cable modem and voila – I’m online via Mozilla, Opera or Konqueror. Knoppix 5.1.1+ is a debian flavour of the Linux O/s with the Linux kernel 2.6.19+ , KDE 3.5.5+/GNOME 2.16+, ntfs-3g and it has all the flavours of a true windows system with OpenOffice2.1+ – (Word-documents,Excel-spreadsheets,PPT-presentations) , PDF reader, kaffeine (media player) and GIMP (for those mspaint users), picasa from google, a host of ntfs data recovery tools and good card games!

PCLinuxOS 2007 TR4is a free open source Linux O/S (flavor of Mandrake/Mandriva Linux with Linux kernel 2.6.22.10+, KDE 3.5.7+/GNOME 2.16+, Open Office 2.3+, 3D windows support), has all the above software modules, and it is much better than the Knoppix version as of PCLinuxOS 2007 TR4 versus Knoppix 5.1.1 – since PCLOS can be remastered and installed on a usb flash drive very easily.

Live CD Knoppix (like Live CD PCLinuxOS) uses on-the-fly decompression to load into memory, the required modules, from bootable CD/DVD, so the CD is locked by knoppix and you can’t use it for writing or DVD viewing although they have the CD/DVD writer software and the movie viewer software and I can use an external DVD/CD writer/reader to perform CD/DVD burns/reads. You can install the PCLinuxOS 2007 TR4 Live CD to a USB flash drive The other pluses to these Live CDs are: There is already an available messenger – thanks to secure GAIM (now Pidgin) – which can connect to Yahoo, Google Chat, AOL, etc. among others. Kopete is better than other messengers due to WebCam support, but need Knoppix/PCLinux installed to the hard disc. You can also create custom bootable CD/DVDs/USB flash, since the default live CDs are built for a read-only O/s (from the CD) with default options.

Want to listen to quality music? – using StreamTuner on Linux you can listen to live internet streamed (128 to 256kbps) quality radio on xmms, from around the World for free!!!

Security – you can install the necessary Mozilla addon’s and the shorewall or firestarter firewall to boost your experience.
VLC, Gxine, Amarok and Mplayer are very good multimedia programs covering all the needed experience.

Acrobat 8 is available for Linux for the pdf community.

Open Office or Star Office are not perfect but are decent Linux office solutions.

If you are wondering about install time – there is none – since the OS just boots of a CD/USB, you can use all the features of a full fledged O/S, and if you need, you may install the O/S to hard disc in 10 minutes.

So what are the minimum requirements of this new O/s (Vista beware!)

· Intel-compatible CPU (i486 or later),
· 32 MB of RAM for text mode, at least 96 MB for graphics mode with KDE (at least 128 MB of RAM is recommended to use the various office products),
· boot-able CD-ROM drive, or a boot floppy and standard CD-ROM (IDE/ATAPI or SCSI),
· standard SVGA-compatible graphics card,
· serial or PS/2 standard mouse or IMPS/2-compatible USB-mouse.

Before you comment, please note:

  • I know I could have called Acer – http://global.acer.com/ support – since my laptop is within warranty – well, I didn’t call because I needed internet connectivity – not further delays and postal issues with mailing my hard disc out.
  • Knoppix and PCLinuxOS have very good multi-session KDE3.5+/GNOME 2.16+ windows environment which I wanted compared to a lite-r environment like DSL Linux (http://www.damnsmalllinux.org/ – that’s another topic – 50MB linux – usb/mini-cd boot) – another reason not to go for a usb boot was the laptop bios was not upgraded by the manufacturer and the way to upgrade bios is only through a working Windows XP !! Latest: I finally got a usb floppy drive and got my BIOS upgraded, also I created a custom Live CD of PCLinuxOS 2007 TR4 and copied it to a USB flash which is now bootable (don’t forget to install th MBR) and working for Acer 4152 and Gateway MX 6124 laptops.
  • I downloaded Knoppix 3.6 from a friends cable connection and burnt the CD in 10 minutes and was online on my Acer 4152 NLCI laptop in 15 minutes: Latest: I downloaded Knoppix 5.1.1 Live DVD and PCLinuxOS 2007 TR4 Live DVD – PCLinuxOS rates better with custom Live DVD/USB flash boot support.
  • All of the needed drivers and software including Gaim, Office(Word,Excel,PPT), PDF viewer, printer-scanner drivers, rss reader, were on the CD so nothing to install – unlike ms windows, where a plain o/s is useless!!!

Knoppix 3.6 Problems and PCLinuxOS 2007 TR4 Advantages:

  • The laptop CD/DVD drive is being fully used/locked and I cannot eject it – when I log into the Knoppix Live O/s. This is by design, since the modules are dynamically loaded from the CD. You can burn custom CD’s by downloading the necessary softwares by apt-get
  • I downloaded PCLinuxOS 0.93 and later upgraded to PCLinuxOS 2007 TR4 and they install to hard disc easily with a single click, also they have a neat way to create a custom Live CD/DVD, which can be created in 20 minutes flat using mklivecd/k3b
  • Webcam with messenger is an issue with gaim – PCLinuxOS 2007 fixed this problem with a new version of Kopete and many more web camera tools.
  • WPA Wireless security is not supported with default ndiswrapper, you may still have to use the windows wireless card drivers – otherwise PCLinuxOS 2007 makes secure wireless a breeze, with support for secured 128 bit WEP.
  • The apt-get feature (combined with Synaptic of PCLinuxOS) of most Linux flavors (yast in OpenSuse) is great to keep your specific O/S features upto-date and remove broken packages. The control you have over your custom machine software is simply great.
  • I can’t access the SD Card inserted in the proprietary Acer Laptop Texas Instruments SD/MMC Card Reader – but I can connect the Kodak digital camera via USB and the photos can be uploaded. Latest: PCLinuxOS 2007 TR4 has a fix for many Gateway laptop SD card reader issues in their support forums for most SD cards and multi card readers.
  • I can’t read MS Visio documents (but this in development and I will use visio converted to jpegs till then).
  • Open Office is not yet a very mature software and cannot reasonably compare to MS Office 2003 in either features or printing of Excel documents.
  • PCLinuxOS 2007 has Beryl which is a decent 3D windows manager with nice 3D windows effects – but 3D windows is still not a very refined concept and I would suggest uninstalling the compiz and beryl 3D software.

Well, that’s it from me, see ya… Keep your Knoppix CD/DVD or PCLinuxOS CD/DVD/USB ready…. as we say in Linux there is true consumer choice even though I personally vote for PCLinuxOS 2007 TR4

Oh ya.. Knoppix supports clusters and a multi-computer version is out called “ParallelKnoppix” which converts a host of windows machines into a Linux Cluster Farm. Descriptions are here – http://idea.uab.es/mcreel/ParallelKnoppix/ http://www.knoppix.net/wiki/Cluster_Live_CD

Howto? – Another useful site to learn to use Linux – http://www.linux.ie/articles/tutorials/

Some more flavors that receive good desktop Linux reviews are

Other good sites with helpful linux links:


Migrating to ASP.NET 2.0 — Its backward compatible

October 21, 2005

Here are my investigations based on MSDN and a running site at Microsoft since Aug 2005 with better performance than before:

· Because of the way that the .NET Framework is designed, you can deploy the 2.0 framework without disrupting a current installation of the 1.0 or 1.1 frameworks.

To configure a 1.x application’s script map to use the .NET Framework version 2.0

  • On the Start menu, click Run.
  • In the Open box, type inetmgr and click OK.
  • In Internet Information Services (IIS) Manager, expand the local computer, and then expand Web Sites.
  • Select the target Web site that is running in the .NET Framework version 1.x.
  • Right-click the name of the virtual directory for the Web site, and then click Properties.
    The Properties dialog box appears.
  • In the ASP.NET version selection list, choose the .NET Framework version 2.0.
    Click OK.
  • Navigate to a page in your application and confirm that your application runs as expected.

· If you are planning on using ASP.NET 2.0 on a production site, you will need to acquire the Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 Beta 2 Go-Live license (Nov 2005 is the final release of VS .NET 2005, so this may change) http://lab.msdn.microsoft.com/ or http://msdn2.microsoft.com/ . Basically, Microsoft does not offer support for the pre-release products.
· ASP.NET 2.0 and ASP.NET 1.1 Applications can live on the same IIS Server: By default, your 1.x applications will continue to use the 1.x framework. However, you will have to configure your converted/new applications (web sites/virtual directories) to use the 2.0 framework.
· Requirements for hosting ASP.NET 2.0 Apps:
o Internet Information Services (IIS) version 5.0 or later. To access the features of ASP.NET, IIS with the latest security updates must be installed prior to installing the .NET Framework. (So you can run ASP.NET 2.0 apps on old boxes with IIS5-Win 2000 Server)
o ASP.NET is supported only on the following platforms: Microsoft Windows 2000 Professional (Service Pack 3 recommended), Microsoft Windows 2000 Server (Service Pack 3 recommended), Microsoft Windows XP Professional, and Microsoft Windows Server 2003 family.
o Microsoft Data Access Components 2.8; is recommended. This is for applications that use data access.
o Supported Operating Systems: Windows 2000; Windows 98; Windows 98 Second Edition; Windows ME; Windows Server 2003; Windows XP. Make sure you have the latest service pack and critical updates for the version of Windows that you are running. To find recent security updates, visit Windows Update.
o You must also be running Microsoft Internet Explorer 5.01 or later for all installations of the .NET Framework. Install Internet Explorer 6.0 Service Pack 1.

Here’s what we gain:
New Features in ASP.NET 2.0
· Master pages are a new feature introduced in ASP.NET 2.0 to help you reduce development time for Web applications by defining a single location to maintain a consistent look and feel in a site. Master pages allow you to design a template that can be used to generate a common layout for many pages in the application.
· Content pages (I call them business logic sub-pages) are attached to a master-page and define content for any ContentPlaceHolder controls in the master page. The content page contains controls that reference the controls in the master page through the ContentPlaceHolder ID. The content pages and the master page combine to form a single response.
· Nested Master Pages: In certain instances, master pages must be nested to achieve increased control over site layout and style. For example, your company may have a Web site that has a constant header and footer for every page, but your accounting department has a slightly different template than your IT department.
· Overriding Master Pages: Although the goal of master pages is to create a constant look and feel for all of the pages in your application, there may be situations when you need to override certain content on a specific page. To override content in a content page, you can simply use a content control.
· Themes and Skins: ASP.NET 2.0 rectifies the issue of using CSS and inline styles in ASP.NET 1.1 pages, through the use of themes and skins, which are applied uniformly across every page and control in a Web site.A skin is a set of properties and templates that can be used to standardize the size, font, and other characteristics of controls on a page. Themes are similar to CSS style sheets in that both themes and style sheets define a set of common attributes that apply to any page where the theme or style sheet is applied.
· Security: Managing User Info with Profiles and Login Controls: The membership provider and login controls in ASP.NET 2.0 provide a unified way of managing user information. ASP.NET 2.0 offers new login controls to help create and manage user accounts without writing any code.The ASP.NET 2.0 profile features allow you to define, save, and retrieve information associated with any user that visits your Web site. In a traditional ASP application, you would have to develop your own code to gather the data about the user, store it in session during the user’s session, and save it to some persistent data store when the user leaves the Web site.
· Localizaton. Enabling globalization and localization in Web sites today is difficult, requiring large amounts of custom code and resources. ASP.NET 2.0 and Visual Studio 2005 provide tools and infrastructure to easily build Localizable site including the ability to auto-detect incoming locale’s and display the appropriate locale based UI. Visual Studio 2005 includes built-in tools to dynamically generate resource files and localization references. Together, building localized applications becomes a simple and integrated part of the development experience.
· 64-Bit Support. ASP.NET 2.0 is now 64-bit enabled, meaning it can take advantage of the full memory address space of new 64-bit processors and servers. Developers can simply copy existing 32-bit ASP.NET applications onto a 64-bit ASP.NET 2.0 server and have them automatically be JIT compiled and executed as native 64-bit applications (no source code changes or manual re-compile are required).
· Caching Improvements. ASP.NET 2.0 also now includes automatic database server cache invalidation. This powerful and easy-to-use feature allows developers to aggressively output cache database-driven page and partial page content within a site and have ASP.NET automatically invalidate these cache entries and refresh the content whenever the back-end database changes. Developers can now safely cache time-critical content for long periods without worrying about serving visitors stale data.
· Web Parts: Web Parts are modular components that can be included and arranged by the user to create a productive interface that is not cluttered with unnecessary details. The user can:
o Choose which parts to display.
o Configure the parts in any order or arrangement.
o Save the view from one Web session to the next.
o Customize the look of certain Web Parts.
· Better Development Environment: ASP.NET 2.0 continues in the footsteps of ASP.NET 1.x by providing a scalable, extensible, and configurable framework for Web application development. The core architecture of ASP.NET has changed to support a greater variety of options for compilation and deployment. As a developer, you will also notice that many of your primary tasks have been made easier by new controls, new wizards, and new features in Visual Studio 2005. Finally, ASP.NET 2.0 expands the palette of options even further by introducing revolutionary new controls for personalization, themes and skins, and master pages. All of these enhancements build on the ASP.NET 1.1 framework to provide an even better set of options for Web development within the .NET Framework.
· Last but not the least there’s a host of new language features that reduce code lines in .NET 2.0: What’s New in the C# 2.0 Language and Compiler
With the release of Visual Studio 2005, the C# language has been updated to version 2.0, which supports the following new features:
o Generics
Generic types are added to the language to enable programmers to achieve a high level of code reuse and enhanced performance for collection classes. Generic types can differ only by arity. Parameters can also be forced to be specific types. For more information, see Generic Type Parameters.

o Iterators
Iterators make it easier to dictate how a foreach loop will iterate over a collection’s contents.

o Partial Classes
Partial type definitions allow a single type, such as a class, to be split into multiple files. The Visual Studio designer uses this feature to separate its generated code from user code.

o Nullable Types
Nullable types allow a variable to contain a value that is undefined. Nullable types are useful when working with databases and other data structures that may contain elements that contain no specific values.

o Anonymous Methods
It is now possible to pass a block of code as a parameter. Anywhere a delegate is expected, a code block can be used instead: there is no need to define a new method.

o Namespace alias qualifier
The namespace alias qualifier (::) provides more control over accessing namespace members. The global :: alias allows access the root namespace that may be hidden by an entity in your code.

o Static Classes
Static classes are a safe and convenient way of declaring a class containing static methods that cannot be instantiated. In C# version 1.2 you would have defined the class constructor as private to prevent the class being instantiated.

o External Assembly Alias
Reference different versions of the same component, contained in the same assembly, with this expanded use of the extern keyword.

o Property Accessor Accessibility
It is now possible to define different levels of accessibility for the get and set accessors on properties.

o Covariance and Contravariance in Delegates
The method passed to a delegate may now have greater flexibility in its return type and parameters.

o How to: Declare, Instantiate, and Use a Delegate
Method group conversion provides a simplified syntax for declaring delegates.

o Fixed Size Buffers
In an unsafe code block, it is now possible to declare fixed-size structures with embedded arrays.

o Friend Assemblies
Assemblies can provide access to non-public types to other assemblies.

o Inline warning control
The #pragma warning directive may be used to disable and enable certain compiler warnings.

o volatile
The volatile keyword can now be applied to IntPtr and UIntPtr.

Thanks to the various links by Microsoft for the above info.
http://msdn2.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms228038.aspx
http://msdn2.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms228211.aspx
http://msdn2.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms228097.aspx
http://msdn2.microsoft.com/en-us/library/7cz8t42e.aspx


Migrating Oracle Databases to SQL Server 2000

October 8, 2004

SQL Server 2000 only works on Windows-based platforms, including Windows 9x, Windows NT, Windows 2000 and Windows CE.
In comparison with SQL Server 2000, Oracle 9i Database supports all known platforms, including Windows-based platforms, AIX-Based Systems, Compaq Tru64 UNIX, HP 9000 Series HP-UX, Linux Intel, Sun Solaris and so on.

Sometimes there is the migration issue, so here goes…

There are some nice articles on Oracle to SQL Server migration at

http://www.microsoft.com/resources/documentation/sql/2000/all/reskit/en-us/part2/c0761.mspx

SQL Server vs Oracle Feature differences
http://www.mssqlcity.com/Articles/Compare/sql_server_vs_oracle.htm

There is a nice tool for the Migration of stored procs/SQL at
http://www.swissql.com/oracle-to-sql-server.html

Latest Top Ten TPC-C by PerformanceVersion 5 Results
http://www.tpc.org/tpcc/results/tpcc_perf_results.asp

Top Ten TPC-C by Price/PerformanceVersion 5 Results
http://www.tpc.org/tpcc/results/tpcc_price_perf_results.asp

Oracle vs SQL Server
http://www.dba-oracle.com/oracle_tips_oracle_v_sql_server.htm

Thanks to the authors of these public sites for the relevant information.